8 most common examples of reflection of light in daily life

8 most common examples of reflection of light in daily life

Introduction

Reflection of light is the phenomenon of natural that plays with the behaviour of light. In the further of the post we will discuss about reflection and some common examples of reflection of light in more depth ways. But before we procced we have to first know a little about reflection and how it happens in any surface weather it is rough, smooth, and curve. So let's start with what is reflection.

What is reflection of light?

Reflection is the natural phenomenon of light that seperate the light waves to go through a straight line. Means it is due to the reflection that a beam of light changes its path.

In other words the bouncing back of light wave in the same medium when strikes with any surfaces weather it is plane, curve or rough.

For example, you can see in the above fig. That a tree get reflection in water. It is happens as follows: when the rays of light falls on the tree then tree becomes luminous object and a luminous object easily get reflected in a smooth surface. Here the smooth surface is water. That's why a virtual image of tree formed in the water.

Luminous object is that object which has its own light. Means the object should be glowing or have some light in itself.

To understand the reflection of light in more detail lets see the another definition.

When a source or an object emitting the rays of light and if these rays of light get touched with any regular or irregular surface then the rays of light get bounced back and spread in all directions. Some of rays get back on its initial path, some are get diffused, some are followed the laws of reflection.

In the above definition of reflection of light. We have used many terms like regular, irregular, diffusion, and laws of reflection. So what was that terms means. because examples of reflection will not be understand if the concept of these terms will not clear. So before we start examples of reflection let's understand all the above terms one by one.

Types of reflection of light

There are many types of reflection of light in daily life. But we discuss only most common and relevant types that is,

  1. Regular reflection of light
  2. Irregular or diffusion of light
  3. Multiple reflection of light.

1. Regular reflection of light

If the rays of light fall on a smooth surface and light waves get reflected in only one direction then it will be the regular reflection of light.

Regular reflection of light can also be defined as the light waves falls on a polished surface and get reflected in such a way that all the light waves will be parallel to each other.

Regular reflection of light

As we can see in the above fig. that three incident rays comming though medium 1 falls on a smooth line and get reflected in the same medium 1.

2. Irregular or diffuse reflection of light

If a ray of light falls on a rough surface then after reflection light waves get diffuse in all directions.

Irregular reflection of light can also be defined as when teh rays of light fall on a surface that is not polished then after reflection it will bounce back in the same medium but not each rays will be parallel to each other.

Irregular or diffuse reflection of light

In the above fig. We can see there are some rays of light coming from medium 1 and falls on a rough surface. After reflection all the light waves get diffused in all directions.

But how did I know this is regular reflection not irregular or diffuse reflection of light. So the main difference between regular reflection and irregular reflection is that as we know when regular reflection occurs then all rays of light become parallel to each other after reflection. But when irregular or diffuse reflection of light occurs then all rays of light will not be parallel to each other.

3. Multiple reflection of light

When a rays of light fall on a surface weather it is rough or polished and the surface are placed with many other polished or rough surfaces in such a way that after reflection of light from one surface the reflected rays fall on the other surface and again reflected rays of second surface falls on the third surface and so on. Then these types of reflection is called multiple reflection of light.

In short way multiple reflection of light can be defined as when a ray of light falls on surface1 and after reflection the reflected ray of surface1 falls on a surface 2 and so on. Then these types of reflection called multiple reflection of light.

See the below fig. to understand the multiple reflection of light.

Multiple reflection of light

In the above fig. We can see there are two surfaces named first reflection and second reflection. When a ray of light incident on the first surface it get reflected and falls on the second surface. Now the reflected ray which is falls on the second surface becomes a incident ray of second surface. So that after reflection from second surface it will again become reflected ray.

You can see the examples of multiple reflection of light in your daily life. Like if you placed a two mirror in such a way that if we bring an object between them then the image will formed in both the mirror. The best example is the mirror placed in hair cut store 'salon'.

Multiple reflection of light

Laws of reflection of light

We have understood the phenomena of refraction of light. Now we will try to understand how reflection occurs. Why we said that light get reflected? So to answer all of these questions. We have to first know the laws of reflection of light.

There are two laws of reflection of light. 

  1. The incidents rays, the reflected rays, the normal and the point of incidence are always lies on the same plane. 
  2. The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.

1. First laws states that if some rays of light falls in a smooth surface and get reflected in the same medium. First laws said that the incidents rays, the reflected rays, the normal and point of incidence are all lies on that smooth surface.

2. Second laws state that when incident rays falls on a plane surface and get reflected then the angle made by incident rays with normal is equal to the angle made by reflected rays with normal.

Please note that:- The incident rays makes ∠i and the reflected rays makes ∠r. So that ∠i = ∠r.

Now, after knowing some useful concepts of reflection of light. Its time to go through examples.

Examples of reflection of light

8 most common examples of reflection of light in daily life

9 most commonly seen examples of reflection of light in daily life with naked eyes.

  1. Reflection of light in mirror.
  2. Reflection of light in spherical mirror.
  3. Reflection of light in water pool.
  4. Reflection of light on polished surface.
  5. Object seen due to reflection of light.
  6. Glowing of stars.
  7. Lighting of moon at night.
  8. Reflection from luminous object.
  9. Reflection from non-luminous objects.

Let's discuss all of the above examples of reflection of light which we can observe in our day to day life.

1. Reflection of light in mirror.

Reflection of light in mirror is the best example of reflection of light. In plane polished surface of the mirror glass the light wave reflect so well that it follows both the laws of reflection of light.

In plane mirror, regular reflection takes place. Because the particles present on the surface of the plane mirror are faced in only one direction. That's why a plane mirror shows a regular reflection of light.

But if you talk about the rough surface. The particles on the surface of the rough part are faced in many directions. That's why irregular reflection of light takes place in rough surface.

If you see the surface of the plane mirror through a microscope then you will find that the particles are faced in only one direction. 

Now, let's know how a plane mirror reflects all the rays in only one directions.

So the answer is, when a beam of light falls on a smooth surface like the surface of the plane mirror. Then due to the particles faced in one particular directions, all the light waves get reflected on that direction.

See the given below fig. to learn how a plane mirror shows regular reflection of light.

Reflection of light in mirror.

In the above fig. An incident rays falls on the surface of a plane mirror and reflect. Reflection takes place in such a way that, incident rays and reflected rays makes angle of incidence and angle of reflection respectively. 

Both angle of incidence and angle of reflection are equal. Because it follows the laws of reflection of light. See fig.

2. Reflection of light in spherical mirror.

After the discussion of reflection of light in plane mirror. Its time to take some knowledge about reflection in spherical mirror.

If we talk about spherical mirror. Then it is a part of a complete sphere. In simple words take a spherical ball and cut it into two pieces equally. The each cut part is like a spherical mirror.

Inner part of the cutted spherical ball is called concave. And outer surface of the cutted spherical ball called convex.

Here we will learn both, reflection in concave and reflection in convex.

Reflection of light in spherical mirror is same as in plane mirror. But it is not that simple. To understand the reflection in spherical mirror. We have to learn reflection in concave and convex mirror.

Reflection in concave mirror

As we discussed just now that reflection of light in concave mirror is same as reflection of light in plane mirror.

In a concave mirror, reflection can takes place in any part of the mirror. But it should be from inside. Because concave mirror is polished from outside. See the given fig.

Reflection in concave mirror

In concave mirror a regular reflection of light takes place only when if it follows certain conditions. These are some conditions which must have to follow for regular reflection in concave mirror.

  • If the light waves are parallel to the principal axis then it the reflected rays will pass through the focus point (F). 
  • If light waves passes through the focus then the reflected rays become parallel to the principal axis.
  • If the incident rays are align with the principal axis then reflected rays will returns to the same path.

As you can see in the above fig. that there are two light waves on upper side of the principal axis and two in the downward direction. All of them strikes with the inner part of the concave mirror. And after the reflection all the waves passed through the focus point. because it follows the laws of reflection of light.

Reflection in convex mirror

In convex mirror, the light waves are are also get reflected and follows the laws of reflection of light. But the reflection takes places from the outside of the mirror. Because in convex mirror, inner side is polished and outer side is shiny. That's why reflection takes place from outside.

In a convex mirror, reflection can takes place in any part of the mirror. But it should be from outside. Because convex mirror is polished from outside. See the given fig.

Reflection in convex mirror

In convex mirror also a regular reflection of light takes place only when if it follows certain conditions. These are some conditions which must have to follow for regular reflection in convex mirror.

  • If the light waves are parallel to the principal axis then it the reflected rays will pass through the focus point (F). 
  • If light waves passes through the focus then the reflected rays become parallel to the principal axis.
  • If the incident rays are align with the principal axis then reflected rays will returns to the same path.

As you can see in the above fig. that there are two light waves on upper side of the principal axis and two in the downward direction. All of them strikes with the inner part of the convex mirror. And after the reflection all the waves passed through the focus point. because it follows the laws of reflection of light.

3. Reflection of light in water pool.

Reflection can also takes place in water. If you observed that, if anyone see into the water. Then an image of that object or person get virtual into the surface of the water. How this happens?

As we know reflection can takes place on both the surface. Weather it is regular or irregular. A water surface is quite regular so that when the rays of light falls on the surface of the water then some of the rays follows laws of reflection and some are not.

4. Reflection of light on polished surface.

As we know that reflection on the surface of the mirror is the best example of reflection of light. Because a mirror surface is also polished.

So on any highly polished surface, reflection can easily takes place. The best example of reflection of light on polished surface will be , reflection in stainless steel.

In vessels or stainless steel, reflection takes place. Because stainless steel has also a polished surface.


5. Object seen due to reflection.

Do you know, why we can see the objects in our surroundings? Why you are able to read this article.

The answers are due to reflection of light. But how? Let's understand.

When an object placed in the light room or to any other sources of light then it emit some source of light from itself and when these emitted light waves enters in our eyes. So that we are able to see the objects.

To seeing an object there one important thing is light. Without light it is not possible to see an object through our neked eyes.

How reflection is responsible for seeing an object?

Let suppose an object is placed in the dark room. Where there is no any sources of light.

Now placed a light bulb 💡 in the room. Now you can see the object very easily. But how this happens? This happens due to the reflection of light through object. Explain.

When you being a light source closer to the object. And we know that a glowing bulb emit a tons of light rays. 

And when these light wave get reflected from the objects placed on that room and when that reflected rays enters in our eyes, it forms a virtual and inverted image in the retina. 

After that mind correct that image and recognise. That's why we are able to see the objects in our surroundings.

6. Glowing of stars.

At night, sky are full of stars. Some of the star ⭐✨✨ glow brightly and some are not. But have you ever think why these stars are always seen glowing?

Starts glow because it is luminous object. But is that's it. Is this answer ok? No my dear friends. No way.

Starts are glowing because of their own light emitting from itself. But how we able to see it?

The answer is just because of the reflection of light emitted from stars. Learn how?

The glowing stars are always emitting light waves. And when these light waves travel through space and come near the earth's surface. Then it strikes with the atmosphere of the earth and at that time some of the light waves get returns into the space. But some are reflected towards the centre of the earth.

That's the reason we can see the glowing stars even it is far from us.

7. Lighting of moon at night.

Lighting of moon is also an example of reflection of light. Moon is lighting not because of it has own light. It is glowing because it reflects the light waves coming from the sun.

As we know moon is non-luminous objects. Perhaps it is glowing due to reflection of light. 

Reflection takes place on the surface of the moon. And due to the irregular surface, when Sun light touches it's ground, the light waves get diffuse and some of the light enters on the earth through atmosphere.

8. Reflection from luminous objects.

Luminous object emit light waves from itself. And when these light waves collide with any other objects or non-luminous objects. Then it makes us to see that non-luminous objects.

So due to the reflection or we can say, with the help of reflection phenomenon a non-luminous objects can be seen.

In other words, due to reflection of light a non-luminous objects becomes luminous object and can emit light waves.


9. Reflection from non-luminous objects.

As we just discussed above that a reflection of light makes a non-luminous objects into a luminous object.

So it is also clear that non-luminous objects emit light due to reflection and make things visible.

Application of reflection of light.

These are the some applications of reflection of light.
  • Microscope works on the application of reflection of light. Because in microscope there are some small mirror piece used to see the objects.
  • Kaleidoscope also works on the principal of reflection of light.
  • The best application of reflection of light is the working of telescope. In inside of the telescope reflection takes place.
  • In cars side mirror.

Hope you enjoyed. Please comment if you have any doubt.

Also read:-

Tetrahedral and octahedral voids in BCC, FCC, HCP and CCP

Tetrahedral and octahedral voids in BCC, FCC, HCP and CCP

Tetrahedral and octahedral voids in BCC, FCC, HCP and CCP

Tetrahedral and Octahedral these two words are well known for those students who studied solid state chapter in class 11th and 12th. In solid state we have studied about crystal lattice and unit cell. But here we learn about tetrahedral voids and octahedral voids. Not only definition but also how to calculate tetrahedral and octahedral voids in different-different cubic unit cell such as bcc, fcc, hcp and ccp.

But before we discuss all these things lets learn some useful points that will help you to understand tetrahedral and octahedral voids.

  • Crystal lattice:- A crystal lattice is the arrangement of lattice point in such a way that it repeated again and again corresponding to one another.
  • Unit Cell:- A unit cell is defined as the part of a crystal lattice arrange in large number to form a big crystal lattice.
  • lattice point:- It is the region or area where all the particles and subatomic particles (atoms/molecules) are present in a crystal lattice.

What is Voids?


What is Voids?

A voids is the region in a crystal lattice where there is nothing found. In other words it the empty space or region of a crystal lattice.

To understand voids in more details. We should learn how many types of voids. That is given below. But if we talk about only voids that found in all types of crystal lattice like bcc, FCC, HCP and CCP. All these cubic unit cell has different-different number of voids. 

But how we know how many voids are in bcc, FCC, HCP etc. So to answer of this question is given further of the post. 

If we talk about the meaning of voids. voids is nothing but an empty space between the atoms (or particles) of the cubic unit cells. In one single cubic unit cell most of the atoms or particles are present at the corner part while in some special types of cubic unit cell atoms or molecules are also present at the body part of a unit cell. For example:-
  • In Body Centered Cubic Unit Cell (BCC):- The Particles are present at the corner as well as one at the center of the cube.
  • In Face Centered Cubic Unit Cell (FCC):- The particles are present at the corner as well as at the all face of a cube.
  • In Simple Unit Cell:- The particles are present only at the each corner part of the cubic unit cell.

Types of Voids

There are three types of Voids. these are:-
  • Triangular Voids
  • Tetrahedral Voids
  • Octahedral Voids

In Chemistry voids are same as we discussed above. but now we will try to know how voids are formed and calculated? So lets start.

How are Voids Formed?

Voids are formed when spheres of the crystal lattice join together and after joining in a particular pattern some of the gap between spheres formed called voids. 

In other words voids are formed when the spheres (having rounded shapes) join together but not border to border due to the round in shape and after joining some of the gap left called formation of voids in a crystal lattice.

Different - Different types of voids formed in different - different cubic unit cell. As we know there are total three types of voids mentioned above. let's learn how each of the voids formed.

  • When three spheres are align in adjacent one and one then Triangular Voids are formed.
  • When one triangular voids covered with one sphere then Tetrahedral voids are formed.
  • When one layer of tetrahedral voids align with another layer of tetrahedral voids then Octahedral voids are formed.

How To Calculate Voids ratio?

To calculate the voids ratio we have to fist calculate the voids in a crystal lattice. Now, voids can be calculate as the total volume minus volume of solid sphere present in a crystal lattice. The Formula for calculating voids is given by

Voids = Volume of crystal lattice - volume of spheres

Voids = Vc - Vs

How To Calculate Voids ratio?
Crystal lattice

As we can see in the above fig. there is a crystal lattice having some particles in sphere shape. If you observe the fig. in more clear way you can see every three spheres are attached in a a definite pattern and form triangular voids. The black circle marks indicates the triangular voids in a crystal lattice. Now, if we want to calculate these triangular voids then we have to follow the above formula.

So according to the above formula:- for calculating voids, first find the volume of the whole crystal lattice. so let's suppose the volume of whole crystal lattice is 'Vc'. And after that we also have to calculate the volume of whole sphere. So let's suppose the volume of one sphere is 'v'. and there are total 11 spheres present in the above fig. of crystal lattice. So the total volume will be

v × 11 = Vs

After the calculation of voids we can now calculate voids ratio too.

To calculate voids ratio we have to divide the volume of voids to the volume of solid spheres present in a crystal lattice. If we talk about the definition of void ratio then it is defined as the fraction of the volume of voids to the volume of whole solid spheres.

Voids ratio is denoted by 'e'. And the formula for calculating voids ratio will be 

Voids Ratio = Volume of Voids / Volume of Solids

e = Vv / Vs

In above discussion of voids. we knew that voids are of three types. triangular, tetrahedral and third is octahedral. But here we only discuss about two voids.

  • First is Tetrahedral Voids.
  • Second is Octahedral Voids.

What is Tetrahedral Voids?

Tetrahedral voids are quite confusing concept. Because I have also searched on the internet about the meaning of tetrahedral voids. But I didn't get any relevant answer. The answers are available but not so understandable easily. So here I make my own definition of tetrahedral voids and I am pretty sure that you can easily understood it yourself just read the below paragraph.

Tetrahedral voids are those voids which is formed when a triangular voids gets covered with a sphere in such a way that the centre of the sphere align with the centroid of the triangular shape voids.

In other words tetrahedral voids are those voids when a one layer of hexagonal crystal lattice get covered with another hexagonal crystal lattice. See the below fig. to understand tetrahedral voids in details.

What is Tetrahedral Voids?
Tetrahedral Voids

In the above fig. You can see in first part there is a three spheres in lower part and attached together in such a way that it creates a triangular voids in the middle. 

But if you observe the picture in more clear way. You will find that there is also a one sphere at the centre of the lower part. And this fourth sphere is placed in such a way the centre of the triangular voids lies on the centre of the upper sphere. That's why tetrahedral voids formed.

If you recreate the figure of lower triangular voids with upper sphere's center then it will be looking like the third part of the picture. That is called tetrahedron.

What are tetrahedral voids in Bcc?

In chemistry, the solid state is made up of crystal lattice. And a crystal lattice is made up of a large number of cubic unit cell arranged in a definite order. But in a unit cell there are particles (atoms or molecules) present at each corner of the cubic unit cell. The arrangements of atoms in a different-different cubic unit cell are like this:

  • In BCC (Body center cubic unit cell) :- The particles are present at each corner of the unit cell as well as one atom at the centre.
  • In FCC (Face center cubic unit cell):- The atoms are present at each corner as well as one atom at each faces.
  • In ECC (Edge center cubic unit cell):- The atoms are present at each corner as well as the centre of each edge.

As we know the a unit cell is made of atoms weather it is in the corner or not. But each atoms have a little gap between them known as voids. And these voids are of two types: first is Tetrahedral and second is octahedral voids.

Now, what is Tetrahedral Voids in bcc? So the answer is Tetrahedral Voids in bcc is also the same voids as in any crystal lattice or cubic unit cell. But the main difference is of their numbers. Means the in bcc the number of tetrahedral voids are different then in any crystal lattice unit cell.

The formula for calculating the tetrahedral voids in bcc is 2n. Where 'n' is the number of atoms present in a unit cell. 

Let's take an example to understand, how to find the number of tetrahedral voids in bcc. As we know the number of atoms in bcc is 2. So according to the above formula, the number of tetrahedral voids in BCC is 2 × 2 = 4.

Please note that:- the number of atoms in bcc is calculated as follows: As we discussed above that in bcc, atoms are present at each corner and one at the centre. So in cubic unit cell, there are total eight corner. So there will be eight atoms. But for each corner there is only 1/8 atoms present in each corner. That's why the total number of atoms will be 1/8 × 8 = 1 atom plus 1 atom at the centre so total will be 2 atoms in bcc.

Where is Tetrahedral Voids located in bcc?

In bcc Body center cubic unit cell the tetrahedral voids are located between the atoms of the unit cell. In bcc 1/8 atoms are present in each eight corner and one atom at the centre of the unit cell. So if we see the body center cubic lattice, from high powerful microscope. Then we will find that the atoms at the centre and at each corner have a little gap between them known as Tetrahedral Voids.

In bcc some of the tetrahedral voids located at the line of diagonal, some are at the top of the lattice unit cell, but there are total 12 positions found in a Body center cubic unit cell (bcc) where the tetrahedral voids are located.

What are tetrahedral voids in FCC?

In face centered cubic unit cell (FCC), there is also a tetrahedral voids present but how many? See In FCC lattice tetrahedral voids closed with four spheres. Three spheres from one layer and rest one sphere from second layer. 


As shown in above figure of tetrahedral voids. These are three spheres in below layer and one sphere in above layer formed a tetrahedral voids between them.

Now, we will talk about how many tetrahedral voids are present in FCC unit cell. So the answer is, In FCC the total number of atoms are 4. And we know that the formula of calculating tetrahedral voids in any unit cell is '2n'. So the total number of tetrahedral voids in FCC will be 2 × 4 = 8 voids.

Please note that to calculate number of atoms in FCC as follows:-
  • In FCC unit cell the numbers of atoms in each corner is 1/8. And as we discussed above that there are total eight corners in FCC where the particles are present. So the total number of atoms in overall corners will be 1/8 × 8 = 1
  • In FCC unit cell the numbers of atoms in each face is 1/2. And we also discussed above that there are total six faces in FCC where the particles are present. So the total number of atoms in in overall faces will be 1/2 × 6 = 3.
  • Now, if we add all the atoms them the results will be 1+3= 4. So the total number of atoms in FCC unit cell is 4.

 

Where is Tetrahedral Voids located in FCC?

In face centered cubic unit cell (FCC) the tetrahedral voids are located along the diagonal of the cubic unit cell. There are total 4 diagonals present in FCC. And two tetrahedral voids found along with one diagonal. That's why there are total 8 tetrahedral voids are present in FCC as we discussed above.


In other words you can say the tetrahedral voids in FCC has been found along with diagonal of the cubic unit cell. And the voids are arranged in such a way that it is attached with diagonal and sometimes close to diagonals.


What are Tetrahedral Voids in HCP?

Tetrahedral Voids in HCP is defined as, in a hexagonal closed packed crystal lattice tetrahedral voids are one of the Voids that are present in it. But apart from the tetrahedral voids there is also a octahedral voids present in it.

In other words a hexagonal closed packed unit cell consists of both tetrahedral and octahedral voids. That means in HCP unit cell the the spherical particles are arranged in such a way that it creates both tetrahedral and octahedral voids.

In HCP three spheres from one layer attached with one sphere from second layer formed a tetrahedral voids. Means where there is four spheres joint together in HCP crystal lattice formed a tetrahedral voids.

On the other hand where there is eight spheres joint together in HCP crystal lattice formed a octahedral voids.

So, from the above discussion we conclude that in HCP unit cell there are two types of voids present. First is octahedral and second is tetrahedral voids.

The total number of tetrahedral voids present in HCP is 12. Because as we knew that the formula of calculating tetrahedral voids in any crystal lattice is '2n'. Where 'n' is no. of atoms.

So, the number of atoms present in HCP unit cell is 6. See how to calculate the number of atoms in HCP unit cell?

  • In HCP unit cell 1/12 atoms are present in each corner.
  • There are total 12 corner in HCP. So the total number of atoms in overall corners will be 1/12 × 12 = 1.
  • Now, in HCP unit cell there are two 2 atoms present in two faces.
  • In the remaining part of the HCP unit cell there are total of 3 atoms present.
  • So the total number of atoms in overall HCP unit cell will be 1+2+3 = 6.

Where is Tetrahedral Voids located in HCP?

As we have already discussed above that in HCP unit cell there are both tetrahedral and octahedral voids present in it. But why? 

So, the answer is in HCP unit cell tetrahedron and octahedron are formed between the atoms present in it. That's the reason tetrahedral and octahedral voids present in it. The position of these voids in HCP will be differ from each other. 

But if we talk about for tetrahedral voids. It is located between the atoms of four spheres present in HCP unit cell.

What are tetrahedral voids in CCP?

CCP unit cell also know as cubic closed packed structure. The CCP unit cell is just similar to the FCC unit cell. So we have already discussed above about the tetrahedral voids in FCC and also its location.

What is the radius of tetrahedral voids?

In any crystal lattice, the tetrahedral voids surrounded by 4 spheres. So let us suppose that the length of the side of cube be 'a'. And the radius of the tetrahedral voids be 'r'.

So, the diagonal of the cube in one face will be √2a. 

If R will be the radius of the sphere. And we know that both the radius of two spheres connected with the radii of tetrahedral voids 'r'. Then the radius of tetrahedral voids after calculation will be 0.225R.

See the below video to find the radius of tetrahedral voids.


What is octahedral voids?

We have already discussed above about tetrahedral voids. It is formed by the combination of three spheres. Means that if three spheres combined together with one other spheres then tetrahedral voids are formed.

But when three spheres from first layer combined with three spheres from second layer then Octahedral voids formed.

In other words Octahedral voids are those voids which is present between the six spheres. The spheres are arranged in such a way that three spheres formed first triangular voids and another three spheres formed second triangular voids. See the fig. given below.

What is octahedral voids?
Octahedral voids

In the above fig. You can see there are two triangular voids joined together and formed a octahedral void. Both the three paired spheres joined from opposite sides.

The above explanation of octahedral voids are very - very simple. Believe me there is no any easy way except this way. But perhaps there is also another explained way to understand the octahedral voids that is given below.

Let's see the another figure of where octahedral voids found? In this visualising fig. of octahedral voids. We can easily see that it is made up of two triangular voids each made up of 3 spheres. That's why octahedral voids surrounded with 6 spheres.

What is octahedral voids?

When the points of all 6 spheres joint together with corner and faces spheres then it formed a octahedron.

Octahedral voids in different units cell

Octahedral voids are simply voids weather it is in bcc, FCC, HCP or FCC. The definition of octahedral voids are same in any crystal lattice unit cell. But the only difference is the number of octahedral voids in different - different unit cell.

But before we proceed to the calculation of octahedral voids in bcc, FCC, HCP or CCP. Please note that the formula of calculating octahedral voids in any unit cell is 'n'. Where 'n' is the number of atoms in any unit cell.

  1. In BCC (Body center cubic unit cell):- the number of octahedral voids in bcc is 2. Because the total number of atoms in bcc is 2.
  2. In FCC (face centered cubic unit cell):- the number of octahedral voids in FCC is 4. Because the total number of atoms in FCC is 4.
  3. In HCP (hexagonal closed packed structure):- the number of octahedral voids in HCP is 6. Because the total number of atoms in HCP is 6.
  4. In CCP the number of octahedral voids is 4 or 1. Because CCP has also 4 atoms as FCC. Please note that CCP is just similar to FCC unit cell.
1 से 100 तक Hindi Counting उच्चारण के साथ - Hindi Ki ginti

1 से 100 तक Hindi Counting उच्चारण के साथ - Hindi Ki ginti

1 से 100 तक Hindi Counting उच्चारण के साथ - Hindi Ki ginti

आज के इस पोस्ट में हमलोग 1 से 100 तक hindi Counting सीखेंगे। साथ में हिन्दी काउंटिंग नंबर को कैसे उच्चारण करते है ये भी जानेंगे। hindi ki ginti सीखना बहुत जरुरी है खास कर के उन लोगो को जो अभी एक तरह से पढाई सुरु ही किये है। मुझे एक बच्चे ने ईमेल किया था की हिन्दी में 1 से 100 तक फोटो के साथ गिनती बताइये। तो आज इस पोस्ट में मैंने निचे हिन्दी काउंटिंग फोटो के साथ दिया गया है।

न केवल फोटो के साथ बल्कि 1 से 100 तक हिन्दी गिनती हिन्दी सब्दो से साथ भी दिया गया है। जिससे आपको पढ़ने में कोई दिक्कत नहीं होगा।

1 से 100 तक Hindi Counting उच्चारण के साथ


निचे मैंने हिन्दी काउंटिंग की संख्या तोर तोर कर बताया है ताकि समझने में आसानी हो। जैसे की पहले 1 से 20 तक हिन्दी में गिनती दी हुई है उसके बाद 21 से 50 तक हिन्दी गिनती और अंत में 51 से 100 गिनती हिन्दी सब्दो के उच्चारण के साथ दी गई है। 

  • 0 = ० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- शून्य ) Zero
  • 1 = १ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- एक ) - One
  • 2 = २ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- दो ) - Two
  • 3 = ३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तीन ) - Three 
  • 4 = ४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चार ) - Four
  • 5 = ५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पाँच ) - Five
  • 6 = ६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छः ) - Six
  • 7 = ७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सात ) - Seven
  • 8 = ८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- आठ ) - Eight
  • 9 = ९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- नौ ) - Nine
  • 10 = १० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- दस ) - Ten
  • 11 = ११ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- ग्यारह ) - Eleven
  • 12 = १२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बारह ) - Twelve
  • 13 = १३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तेरह ) - Thirteen
  • 14 = १४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौदह ) - Fourteen
  • 15 = १५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पन्द्रह ) - Fifteen
  • 16 = १६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सोलह ) - Sixteen
  • 17 = १७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सत्रह ) - Seventeen
  • 18 = १८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अठारह ) - Eighteen
  • 19 = १९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उन्नीस ) - Nineteen
  • 20 = २० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बीस ) - Twenty

                                        21 से 50 तक हिन्दी गिनती - Hindi Counting Number

                                        • 21 - २१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इक्कीस ) - Twenty-one
                                        • 22 - २२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बाईस ) - Twenty-two
                                        • 23 - २३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तेईस ) - Twenty-three
                                        • 24 - २४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौबीस ) - Twenty-four
                                        • 25 - २५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पच्चीस ) - Twenty-five
                                        • 26 - २६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छब्बीस ) - Twenty-six
                                        • 27 - २७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सत्ताईस ) - Twenty-seven
                                        • 28 - २८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अट्ठाईस ) - Twenty-eight
                                        • 29 - २९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उन्तीस ) - Twenty-nine
                                        • 30 - ३० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तीस ) - Thirty
                                        • 31 - ३१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इकतीस ) - Thirty-one
                                        • 32 - ३२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बत्तीस ) - Thirty-two
                                        • 33 - ३३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तैंतीस ) - Thirty-three
                                        • 34 - ३४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौंतीस ) - Thirty-four
                                        • 35 - ३५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पैंतीस ) - Thirty-five
                                        • 36 - ३६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छत्तीस ) - Thirty-six
                                        • 37 - ३७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सैंतीस ) - Thirty-seven
                                        • 38 - ३८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अढ़तीस ) - Thirty-eight
                                        • 39 - ३९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उनतालीस ) - Thirty-nine
                                        • 40 - ४० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चालीस ) - Forty
                                        • 41 - ४१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इकतालीस ) - Forty-one
                                        • 42 - ४२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बयालीस ) - Forty-two
                                        • 43 - ४३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तैंतालीस - Forty-three
                                        • 44 - ४४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चवालीस ) - Forty-four
                                        • 45 - ४५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पैंतालीस ) - Forty-five
                                        • 46 - ४६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छियालीस ) - Forty-six
                                        • 47 - ४७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सैंतालीस ) - Forty-seven
                                        • 48 - ४८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अड़तालीस  )- Forty-eight
                                        • 49 - ४९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उन्चास ) - Forty-nine
                                        • 50 - ५० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पचास ) - Fifty

                                        51 से 100 तक गिनती हिंदी में - Hindi Ki Ginti

                                        • 51 - ५१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इक्यावन - Fifty-one
                                        • 52 - ५२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बावन - Fifty-two
                                        • 53 - ५३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तिरपन - Fifty-three
                                        • 54 - ५४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौवन - Fifty-four
                                        • 55 - ५५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पचपन - Fifty-five
                                        • 56 - ५६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छप्पन - Fifty-six
                                        • 57 - ५७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सत्तावन - Fifty-seven
                                        • 58 - ५८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अट्ठावन - Fifty-eight
                                        • 59 - ५९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उनसठ - Fifty-nine
                                        • 60 - ६० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- साठ - Sixty
                                        • 61 - ६१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इकसठ - Sixty-one
                                        • 62 - ६२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बासठ - Sixty-two
                                        • 63 - ६३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तिरसठ - Sixty-three
                                        • 64 - ६४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौंसठ - Sixty-four
                                        • 65 - ६५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पैंसठ - Sixty-five
                                        • 66 - ६६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छियासठ - Sixty-six
                                        • 67 - ६७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सड़सठ - Sixty-seven
                                        • 68 - ६८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अड़सठ - Sixty-eight
                                        • 69 - ६९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उनहत्तर - Sixty-nine
                                        • 70 - ७० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सत्तर - Seventy
                                        • 71 - ७१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इकहत्तर - Seventy-one
                                        • 72 - ७२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बहत्तर - Seventy-two
                                        • 73 - ७३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तिहत्तर - Seventy-three
                                        • 74 - ७४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौहत्तर - Seventy-four
                                        • 75 - ७५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पचहत्तर - Seventy-five
                                        • 76 - ७६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छिहत्तर - Seventy-six
                                        • 77 - ७७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सतहत्तर - Seventy-seven
                                        • 78 - ७८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अठहत्तर - Seventy-eight
                                        • 79 - ७९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- उन्यासी - Seventy-nine
                                        • 80 - ८० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अस्सी - Eighty
                                        • 81 - ८१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इक्यासी - Eighty-one
                                        • 82 - ८२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बयासी - Eighty-two
                                        • 83 - ८३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तिरासी - Eighty-three
                                        • 84 - ८४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौरासी - Eighty-four
                                        • 85 - ८५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पचासी - Eighty-five
                                        • 86 - ८६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छियासी - Eighty-six
                                        • 87 - ८७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सत्तासी - Eighty-seven
                                        • 88 - ८८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अट्ठासी - Eighty-eight
                                        • 89 - ८९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- नवासी - Eighty-nine
                                        • 90 - ९० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- नब्बे - Ninety
                                        • 91 - ९१ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- इक्यानवे - Ninety-one
                                        • 92 - ९२ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- बानवे - Ninety-two
                                        • 93 - ९३ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- तिरानवे - Ninety-three
                                        • 94 - ९४ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- चौरानवे - Ninety-four
                                        • 95 - ९५ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- पंचानवे - Ninety-five
                                        • 96 - ९६ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- छियानवे - Ninety-six
                                        • 97 - ९७ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सत्तानवे - Ninety-seven
                                        • 98 - ९८ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- अट्ठानवे - Ninety-eight
                                        • 99 - ९९ - ( हिंदी सब्द :- निन्यानवे - Ninety-nine
                                        • 100 - १०० - ( हिंदी सब्द :- सौ - One-hundred

                                        1 से 100 तक गिनती हिंदी में pdf download

                                        1 से 100 तक गिनती हिंदी में pdf फॉर्मेट में डाउनलोड करने के लिए आपको बस निचे दिए गए लिंक पर क्लिक करना है आपका हिन्दी काउंटिंग 1 से १०० तक डाउनलोड हो जायेगा वो भी पीडीऍफ़ के फॉर्मेट में। इसे चाहे तो आप प्रिंट भी करवा सकते है या मोबाइल या लोटोप में डाउनलोड करके रख सकते है। 


                                        1 से 100 तक गिनती हिंदी के शब्दों में

                                        • शून्य - Zero
                                        • एक - One
                                        • दो - Two
                                        • तीन - Three
                                        • चार - Four
                                        • पाँच - Five
                                        • छः - Six
                                        • सात - Seven
                                        • आठ - Eight
                                        • नौ - Nine
                                        • दस - Ten
                                        • ग्यारह - Eleven
                                        • बारह - Twelve
                                        • तेरह - Thirteen
                                        • चौदह - Fourteen
                                        • पन्द्रह - Fifteen
                                        • सोलह - Sixteen
                                        • सत्रह - Seventeen
                                        • अठारह - Eighteen
                                        • उन्नीस - Nineteen
                                        • बीस - Twenty
                                        • इक्कीस - Twenty-one
                                        • बाईस - Twenty-two
                                        • तेईस - Twenty-three
                                        • चौबीस - Twenty-four
                                        • पच्चीस - Twenty-five
                                        • छब्बीस - Twenty-six
                                        • सत्ताईस - Twenty-seven
                                        • अट्ठाईस - Twenty-eight
                                        • उन्तीस - Twenty-nine
                                        • तीस - Thirty
                                        • इकतीस - Thirty-one
                                        • बत्तीस - Thirty-two
                                        • तैंतीस - Thirty-three
                                        • चौंतीस - Thirty-four
                                        • पैंतीस - Thirty-five
                                        • छत्तीस - Thirty-six
                                        • सैंतीस - Thirty-seven
                                        • अढ़तीस - Thirty-eight
                                        • उनतालीस - Thirty-nine
                                        • चालीस - Forty
                                        • इकतालीस - Forty-one
                                        • बयालीस - Forty-two
                                        • तैंतालीस - Forty-three
                                        • चवालीस - Forty-four
                                        • पैंतालीस - Forty-five
                                        • छियालीस - Forty-six
                                        • सैंतालीस - Forty-seven
                                        • अड़तालीस - Forty-eight
                                        • उन्चास - Forty-nine
                                        • पचास - Fifty
                                        • इक्यावन - Fifty-one
                                        • बावन - Fifty-two
                                        • तिरपन - Fifty-three
                                        • चौवन - Fifty-four
                                        • पचपन - Fifty-five
                                        • छप्पन - Fifty-six
                                        • सत्तावन - Fifty-seven
                                        • अट्ठावन - Fifty-eight
                                        • उनसठ - Fifty-nine
                                        • साठ - Sixty
                                        • इकसठ - Sixty-one
                                        • बासठ - Sixty-two
                                        • तिरसठ - Sixty-three
                                        • चौंसठ - Sixty-four
                                        • पैंसठ - Sixty-five
                                        • छियासठ - Sixty-six
                                        • सड़सठ - Sixty-seven
                                        • अड़सठ - Sixty-eight
                                        • उनहत्तर - Sixty-nine
                                        • सत्तर - Seventy
                                        • इकहत्तर - Seventy-one
                                        • बहत्तर - Seventy-two
                                        • तिहत्तर - Seventy-three
                                        • चौहत्तर - Seventy-four
                                        • पचहत्तर - Seventy-five
                                        • छिहत्तर - Seventy-six
                                        • सतहत्तर - Seventy-seven
                                        • अठहत्तर - Seventy-eight
                                        • उन्यासी - Seventy-nine
                                        • अस्सी - Eighty
                                        • इक्यासी - Eighty-one
                                        • बयासी - Eighty-two
                                        • तिरासी - Eighty-three
                                        • चौरासी - Eighty-four
                                        • पचासी - Eighty-five
                                        • छियासी - Eighty-six
                                        • सत्तासी - Eighty-seven
                                        • अट्ठासी - Eighty-eight
                                        • नवासी - Eighty-nine
                                        • नब्बे - Ninety
                                        • इक्यानवे - Ninety-one
                                        • बानवे - Ninety-two
                                        • तिरानवे - Ninety-three
                                        • चौरानवे - Ninety-four
                                        • पंचानवे - Ninety-five
                                        • छियानवे - Ninety-six
                                        • सत्तानवे - Ninety-seven
                                        • अट्ठानवे - Ninety-eight
                                        • निन्यानवे - Ninety-nine
                                        • सौ - One-hundred

                                        1 से 100 तक गिनती फोटो के साथ - Hindi Counting Number

                                        1 से 100 तक Hindi Counting उच्चारण के साथ - Hindi Ki ginti

                                        Hindi counting number 1 to 100 writing in hindi.
                                        Which is easier letter writing or essay writing why?

                                        Which is easier letter writing or essay writing why?

                                        Which is easier letter writing or essay writing why?

                                        Here in this post we will try to know the difference between letter writing and essay writing. Because many of the people have confusion about which is easier letter writing or essay writing? and why? 

                                        So before we start the comparison between letter writing and essay writing. We should learn first the meaning of letter writing and essay writing. So let's start with letter writing.

                                        What is letter writing?

                                        A letter writing is nothing but a medium of communication between two individuals or two people that have far distance from each others.

                                        In other words we can say a letter writing is handwritten or printed copy of your felling, thoughts, emotion that are usually written to talk with your family, partner, friends, etc and for business also.

                                        In previous time letter writing was very famous and only one medium for communication between two individuals. But now after the time passed, technology came and reduced the uses of letter writing, basically for communication purpose. But in some case we are using letter writing. Such as for business, for communication with friends and family etc.

                                        We have divided the format of letter writing into two categories.
                                        1. Formal letter
                                        2. Informal letter

                                        1. Formal letter writing:- formal letter is those letter which is written for the business purpose and for some organization.

                                        2. Informal letter writing:- informal letter is those letter which is written for personal reasons and for relatives.

                                        Now we talk about essay writing. Then we compare which is easier to write. Letter or essay.

                                        What is essay writing?

                                        An essay writing is a type writing used for give informative, suggestions, rise voice against any things etc.

                                        In other words an essay is a piece of writing to inform or persuade. 

                                        These are total 4 types of essay writing.
                                        1. Argumentative
                                        2. Expository
                                        3. Narrative
                                        4. Descriptive

                                        Difference between letter writing and essay writing.

                                        • Letter writing is very short and to the points while essay writing is well designed and informative.
                                        • The format of letter writing is two types on the other hand the format of essay writing is 4 types.
                                        • Letter is written for business and families but essay is written for raising voice against corruption.
                                        • Letter writing is a medium of communication between two individuals whereas essay writing is a medium of sending messages to the public.

                                        Which is easier letter writing or essay writing why?

                                        So after the discussion of all the facts about letter writing and essay writing we conclude that letter writing has its own benefit and essay writing has its own benefit. We cannot compare it on the basis of important. Because both have its own identity and benefits. But if we talk which is easier then Letter writing is easier than essay writing.
                                        मेट्रो ड्राइवर कैसे बने | How to become metro train driver in hindi

                                        मेट्रो ड्राइवर कैसे बने | How to become metro train driver in hindi

                                        मेट्रो ड्राइवर कैसे बने | How to become metro train driver in hindi

                                        अगर आपका सपना मेट्रो रेलवे में काम करना है तो ये पोस्ट सिर्फ आपके लिए है। क्योकि इस पोस्ट में मेट्रो रेलवे के जॉब के बारे में बताया गया है। खास कर के metro train ka driver kaise bane? (How to become metro driver in India?) इस बारे में अच्छे से बताया गया है।साथ में ये भी बताया गया है की मेट्रो ड्राइवर बनने के लिए क्या पढ़ना चाहिए ? सिलेबस क्या है ? मेट्रो ड्राइवर की तैयारी कैसे करे ? कोन सा बुक ख़रीदे ? कोचिंग करना चाहिए या नहीं ? इन सरे सवालो का जबाब इस पोस्ट में निचे दिया गया है। इस पोस्ट को पढ़ने के बाद आपको अच्छे  से समझ में आ जायेगा की मेट्रो ड्राइवर कैसे बने ? तो चलिए बिना किसी देरी के सुरु करते है।

                                        अगर बात करे मेट्रो रेलवे की तो इसे high speed transport के लिए सुरु किया गया था। सबसे पहला मेट्रो रेलवे कोलकाता में सुरु किया गया था। मेट्रो रेल start करने का सबसे बड़ा कारन यही था की जो भी developed countries है उसमे road traffic काम हो सके। लोग छोटी दुरी तय करने के लिए रोड का इस्तामाल न करे। 

                                        मेट्रो रेल में कई सरे पोस्ट होती है। जैसे की SC जिसका फुलफॉर्म Station Controller होता है और TO जिसका फुलफॉर्म train Operator होता है। यहाँ पैर ध्यान देने वाली बात ये है की मेट्रो रेलवे में Metro Driver को ही English में Train Operator (TO) कहते है। इसके अलावा भी कई सरे पोस्ट Metro rail corporation में होता है जैसे की CRA जिसका फुलफॉर्म Customer Relation Assistant होता है। 

                                        अगर सरे पोस्ट को मिला के भी बात करे तो मेट्रो रेल में केवल दो तरह के पोस्ट ही होती है। पहला executive और दूसरा non - executive post होता है।

                                        लेकिन आज के इस पोस्ट में केवल मेट्रो ड्राइवर के बारे में ही बात करेंगे। मेट्रो रेलवे कई सरे स्टेट में होता है। अगर सिर्फ अपने इंडिया की बात करे जहा पे आप मेट्रो ड्राइवर की नौकरी कर सकते है तो वो फ़िलहाल सिर्फ 13 स्टेट में ही उपलब्ध है। (13 Types of metro rail corporation available in India) अगर आप मेट्रो ड्राइवर बनने की तैयारी करते है तो आपको इन सरे जगह पे नौकरी मिल सकती है। 

                                        1. Ahmedabad Metro Rail Corporation AMRC
                                        2. Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation BMRC
                                        3. Chennai Rail Corporation CMRC
                                        4. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation DMRC
                                        5. Hyderabad Metro Rail Corporation HMRC
                                        6. Jaipur Metro Rail Corporation JMRC
                                        7. Kochi Metro Rail Corporation KMRC
                                        8. Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation 
                                        9. Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation
                                        10. Nagpur Metro Rail Corporation
                                        11. Noida Metro Rail Corporation
                                        12. Gurugram Metro Rail Corporation 
                                        13. Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation

                                        इसमें से कई मेट्रो corporation सरकारी भी है और प्राइवेट भी है। लेकिन सबसे ज़ादा ध्यान देने वाली बात ये है की इन सरे Metro rail  corporation के exam का सिलेबस अलग अलग है। एग्जाम पैटर्न भी अलग अलग है। सरे मेट्रो कारपोरेशन का एग्जाम पैटर्न तो निचे दिया गया है। 

                                        इन सरे मेट्रो रेल corporation को समझने से पहले हम लोग ये समझते है की मेट्रो ड्राइवर क्या होता है और तैयारी कैसे करे। 

                                        मेट्रो ड्राइवर किसे कहते है ? Who is metro driver?

                                        metro driver वो होता है जो मेट्रो को चलता है। मेट्रो ड्राइवर को हमलोग मेट्रो pilot भी कहते है। मेट्रो पायलट का काम बहुत ही ज़िम्मेदारी वाला होता है। एक मेट्रो पायलट को मेट्रो चलाते समय बहुत सरे बातो को ध्यान में रखा जाता है। 

                                        मेट्रो ड्राइवर के पोस्ट के लिए हर साल एग्जाम होता है। अलग अलग स्टेट अपने पैटर्न में एग्जाम लेता है। अगर बात करे कुछ खास मेट्रो स्टेट की तो सबसे पहले नंबर पे आता है DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation) इस कारपोरेशन में जॉब लेना बहुत ही मुश्किल है। लेकिन अगर आप मेरे बताये हुए strategies को फॉलो करते है तो आप DMRC का exam आसानी से निकाल पाएंगे।

                                        Metro Driver Kaise bane ?

                                        मेट्रो ड्राइवर बनने के लिए आपको मेट्रो रेलवे का एंट्रेंस एग्जाम निकलना होगा। हर स्टेट का एग्जाम का नाम अलग अलग होता है। जैसे अगर आप चाहते है की दिल्ली मेट्रो में आपका नौकरी लगे तो आपको DMRC TO (Train Operator) का एग्जाम निकालना होगा। उत्तर प्रदेश के लिए UMRC TO , मुंबई मेट्रो के लिए MMRC TO , कोलकाता के लिए KMRC SC / TO इत्यादि। इसी प्रकार अलग अलग स्टेट के लिए अलग अलग exam होता है। 

                                        निचे मैंने उद्धरण के लिए DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail corporation) के बारे में सिर्फ बताया है। क्योकि दिल्ली मेट्रो का exam pattern , syllabus , तैयारी करने का तरीका लगभग लगभग सारे स्टेट के Metro rail corporation से मिलता जुलता है। तो इस example से आपको सरे स्टेट के Metro rail exam का कुछ कुछ idea आ जायेगा। 

                                        DMRC में मेट्रो ड्राइवर (Train Operator) कैसे बने ?

                                        निचे दिए गए 5 Steps को फॉलो करके आप Delhi metro में Metro Driver (Train Operator) या स्टेशन कंट्रोलर आसानी से बन सकते है। 

                                        Step 1:- दिल्ली मेट्रो में मेट्रो ड्राइवर बनने के लिए आपको DMRC का exam qualify करना होगा। इस एग्जाम का फॉर्म DMRC के द्वारा हर साल निकलता है। DMRC का एग्जाम फॉर्म भरने के लिए एक student का qualification कुछ इस प्रकार है। 

                                        • Station controller या Train operator बनने के लिए आपको पहले graduation करना होगा। मतलब मेट्रो ड्राइवर बनने के लिए आपको किसी कॉलेज या universities से अपना ग्रेजुएशन complete करना होगा। 
                                        • graduation भी आपको सिर्फ इन्ही सारे फील्डों में करना होगा। B.sc in (Physics, Chemistry, Math).
                                        • या अगर आप ग्रेजुएशन Physics, Chemistry, Math में नहीं करते है तो आपको 3 साल का डिप्लोमा कोर्स करना होगा। वो भी Electric Engineering के चैत्र में। 

                                        Step 2:- अगर आप ऊपर दिए गए विषयो से अपना ग्रेजुएशन या डिप्लोमा complete कर लिए है तो आप (DMRC) दिल्ली मेट्रो का फॉर्म भरने के लिए eligible है। 

                                        Step 3:- फॉर्म भरने के बाद मेट्रो ड्राइवर की तैयारी करने के लिए market से एक अच्छा सा कोई भी DMRC का बुक ले लीजिये। नहीं तो DMRC का previous year paper solve करे।

                                        Step 4:- अगर आप एग्जाम में पास होते है तो आपको मेडिकल टेस्ट के लिए बुलाया जाएगा। मेडिकल टेस्ट में इन सारे बातो का ध्यान दिया जाता है।  

                                        • अगर किसी वयक्ति को किसी प्रकार का surgery हुआ है तो वो सिर्फ Office Assistant, Account Assistant, और Stenographer के लिए ही eligible होगा। 
                                        • पहला मेडिकल टेस्ट का खर्चा DMRC के द्वारा ही दिया जायेगा। 
                                        • अगर किसी कारन बस candidate को दूसरी बार मेडिकल देना परे तो जतना भी मेडिकल टेस्ट में खर्च आएगा वो candidate को ही देना पड़ेगा। 

                                        Step 5:- मेडिकल पास करने के बाद selected candidate का शाइको टेस्ट होगा। साइको टेस्ट पास करने के बाद आपको मेट्रो ड्राइवर का जोइनिंग लेटर मिल जायेग। 
                                        Black, White, aur Yellow Fungus kya hai - क्या है लक्षण, बचाव जाँच और इलाज

                                        Black, White, aur Yellow Fungus kya hai - क्या है लक्षण, बचाव जाँच और इलाज

                                        Black, White, aur Yellow Fungus kya hai - क्या है लक्षण, बचाव जाँच और इलाज

                                        Black, White, और Yellow Fungus kya hai - क्या है लक्षण, बचाव जाँच और इलाज; इस कोरोना काल में कुछ फंगस भी आतंक मचा रहे है। कुछ दिनों ये न्यूज़ में कुछ फंगस के नाम आ रहे है। Black Fungus, White fungus, Yellow fungus. तो आज के इस पोस्ट में हमलोग यही जानेंगे की ये सारे black वाइट और येलो fungus क्या है ? इसके लक्षण क्या है ? अगर हो गए तो क्या करे ? इन सारे फंगस से कैसे बचे ? ये सारे फंगस किसी भी आदमी को कैसे होता है ? जिससे की हम लोग वो गलती न करे। तो ये पोस्ट बहुत ही informative होने वाली है। तो इसे ध्यान से पढ़िएगा। चलिए सबसे पहले सुरु करते है Black Fungus से और जानते है की Black Fungus kya hota hai ?

                                        आप लोगो ने ब्लैक fungus के बारे में न्यूज़ या मीडिया में जरूर सुना होगा। इसलिए तो आप ये जानना चाहते है की ब्लैक फंगस क्या है। तो आज के इस पोस्ट में मैंने ये बताया है की ब्लैक फंगस क्या है ?, ब्लैक फंगस को कैसे पहचाने ?, क्या कोरोना के बाद ब्लैक फंगस हो सकता है ? इन सरे सालो का जबाब आज के इस पोस्ट में दिए गए है। 

                                        Disclaimer :- यहाँ पे जो भी इनफार्मेशन दी जा रही है वो सिर्फ education purpose के लिए है। अगर किसी को कोई तकलीफ है तो वो सिर्फ डॉक्टर्स को ही दिखाए। किसी के बातो में ना आये। 

                                        Black Fungus kya hota hai in hindi

                                        Black Fungus को English में  Mucormycosis भी कहते है। सबसे पहले आप ये जान लीजिये की Black Fungus कोई नई बीमारी नहीं है। Black Fungus के बारे में डॉक्टर्स को पहले से ही पता है बल्कि कई सालो से पता है। अगर Black fungus के बारे में बोले तो ये एक तरह का फंगस है। जैसे आपने ब्रेड में देखा होगा की जब ब्रेड ख़राब हो जाता है तो उसमे फंगस लग जाता है ठीक उसी प्रकार ब्लैक फंगस भी एक फंगस है। लेकिन black fungus ko black fungus kyu kahte hai? चलिए जानते है। Black Fungus एक ऐसा फंगस है जिसका वास्तव में Black color नहीं होता है। ये white रंग का होता है। लेकिन जब ये हमारे body को infect करता है और जिस जगह पे करता है वो जगह कला हो जाता है क्योकि infection के बाद उस जगह का cell और tissue मर जाता है इसलिए इसे black fungus का नाम दिया गया है।

                                        ब्लैक फंगस हवा में , और मिटटी में present होता है। लेकिन यहाँ पे सवाल उठता है की जब ब्लैक फंगस हवा में है तो हम लोगो को ब्लैक फंगस इन्फेक्ट क्यों नहीं करता है। तो इसका जबाब है हमारा immune system जो की हमें बचा के रखता है। 

                                        ब्लैक फंगस उन लोगो को हो सकता है जिनका इम्यून सिस्टम काफी ख़राब है। या उन्हें कोई बीमारी है। तब जेक कुछ चांस है की ब्लैक फंगस किसी को infect कर सकता है। 

                                        चलिए अब ये जानते है की black fungus से सबसे ज़ादा किसको खतरा है। निचे दिए गए लिस्ट में बताया गया है की सबसे ज़ादा रिस्क कौन कौन से लोगो को है। 

                                        • अगर किसी का इम्यून सिस्टम बहुत ख़राब है तो उसको हो सकता है। लेकिन बहुत काम चांस है। 
                                        • अगर कोई HIV और AIDS का पेशेंट है तो  उसको हो सकता है। 
                                        • या कोई कैंसर का पेशेंट है। 
                                        • या पेशेंट क्रोनिक किडनी की बीमारी है। 
                                        • या किसी का कोई पार्ट transplant किया गया है।
                                        • Diabetes

                                        जो पेशेंट डायबिटिक है या जिन्हे शुगर का बीमारी है 95 % वही लोग लोग अभी ब्लैक फंगस से इंडेक्ट हो रहे है। डॉक्टरों की राय मने तो अभी डायबिटिक लोगो को ज़ादा धयान से रहना चाहिए। इन्हे ज़ादा संभलके रहना चाहिए। 

                                        Black Fungus ke lakshan (symptoms) in hindi

                                        ब्लैक फंगस से बचने के लिए जितनी जल्दी हो सके उतनी जल्दी ट्रीटमेंट करवा ले। एहि एक मात्रा उपाय है ब्लैक फंगस से बचने के लिए। चलिए ये जानते है की black fangus ko कैसे पहचने ?

                                        1. Black fungus का पहला लक्षण है की सर का एक भाग दुखना 
                                        2. Black fungus का दूसरा लक्षण है की जब आप चेहरे के एक तरफ छूते है तो दर्द करना। 
                                        3. चेहरे के एक तरफ सेंसेशन ख़तम हो जाना। 
                                        4. दातो का दर्द या दातो का झरना। 
                                        5. या संश लेने में तकलीफ। 
                                        6. नाक से खून निकलना या नाक काला पर जाना। 
                                        7. चेहरे के एक तरफ सूजन आ जाना। 
                                        8. आँखों में सूजन आना। 
                                        9. आंख की पलक का निचे लटक जाना। 
                                        10. या आपको डबल डबल दिखना। 

                                        अब बात आती है की अगर ब्लैक फंगस हो जाये तो क्या करे। सीधे बिना कुछ सोचे हुए हॉस्पिटल भगये। इसको हलके में नहीं लेना है। किसी आंख या नाक के स्पेशलिस्ट डॉक्टर के पास जाईए। 

                                        Black Fungus kaise hota hai?

                                        चलिए जानते है की black fungus कैसे फैलता है। तो black fungus हवा और मिटटी से फैलता है। जब कोई आदमी किसी black fungus हुए आदमी के contact में आता है तब ब्लैक फंगस फैलता है। या अगर कोई डायबिटिक पेशेंट ने कोरोना में कोई piles या टेबलेट खाया था बिना डॉक्टर के सलाह के तो उसे ज़ादा खतरा है। मतलब उसे black fungus हो सकता है। 

                                        Black Fungus ka kya illaj hai?

                                        • black Fungus से बचने के लिए शुगर कंट्रोल करना जरुरी है। 
                                        • steroids का सेवन न करे। 
                                        • ब्लैक फंगस से बचने के लिए डॉक्टर्स से एंटी fungal injection ले । 

                                        क्या Black Fungus से डरना चाहिए।

                                        ब्लैक फंगस से उतना डरने की जरुरत नहीं है। लेकिन फिर भी सावधानी बरतिए। किसी को ब्लैक फंगस होने के चांस इतना है की मान लीजिये अगर 3000 लोगो को कोरोना हुआ है तो उसमे 3 लोगो को ब्लैक फंगस हो सकता है।

                                        White Fungus Kya hota hai in hindi

                                        white Fungus भी एक तरह का Fungus है जो की मुँह में खास कर के मिलता है। White Fungus को English में Candida कहते है। इस Fungus से ज़ादा डरने की जरुरत नहीं है। white  फंगस ब्लैक Fungus से कम घातक है। white Fungus खास करके जुबान पे या मुँह से ऊपरी सतह पे पाया जाता है।

                                        यहाँ पे ध्यान देने वाली बात ये भी है की कुछ डॉक्टर्स white Fungus को ज़ादा घातक मानते है black Fungus से तो अगर आपको किसी भी तरह का परेशानी हो रही है तो आप डॉक्टर्स की सलाह ले सकते है। 

                                        White Fungus ke lakshan (symptoms) in hindi

                                        white Fungus के लक्षण इस बात से पता चलती है Fungus ने आपके किस बॉडी पार्ट को infect किया है। वाइट फंगस और ब्लैक फंगस के कुछ सामान लक्षण है। जैसे की 

                                        1. white Fungus का सबसे पहले लक्षण फेफड़ो में तकलीफ होना। 
                                        2. सर्दी और खासी जैसे कोरोना में होता है। 
                                        3. White Fungus का तीसरा लक्षण है मुँह में white white दाग हो जाना, tongue में वाइट परत जम जाना इत्यादि।
                                        4. White Fungus का अगला लक्षण है एक तरफ का गाल फूल जाना। 
                                        5. White Fungus का एक और लक्षण है की दातो में सूजन आ जाना। जो की ब्लैक फंगस का भी लक्षण है। 

                                        White Fungus kaise फैलता है। 

                                        White Fungus हवा से फ़ैल कर आपके सरीर में दाखिल हो सकता है। अगर किसी में face पे कोई चोट का निसान है तो वाइट Fungus उसके जरिये आपके सरीर में दाखिल हो सकता है। 

                                        • किसी white Fungus के आदमी के contact में आने से फ़ैल सकता है। 
                                        • वाइट फंगस गन्दगी से फ़ैल सकता है। इसलिए आस पास में सफाई बनके रखे। 

                                        White Fungus se kaise bache (Precaution)

                                        • White Fungus से बचने के लिए सामाजिक दूरी बनाएं। 
                                        • वह सब कुछ करें जो सरकार अनुमति देती है। 
                                        • हाथ न मिलाएं। 
                                        • अच्छी क्वालिटी का मास्क पहनें। 
                                        • अपने हाथ नियमित रूप से धोएं। 
                                        • हैंड सेनिटाइज़र का उपयोग करें।